Damping-off diseases (Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia solani)
Damping-off diseases affect the initial establishment of a crop. Their main features include poor emergence and death of seedlings leading to poor stands in seedbeds and fields. Seeds may rot before germination. Affected seedlings that have emerged from the soil show water-soaking, browning and shrivelling of the stem at the soil level. They eventually fall over and die. Damping-off diseases are favoured by excessive wetness of the soil and low soil temperatures.
- Use certified disease-free seeds
- Avoid over-irrigation and excessive fertilisation with nitrogen fertilisers.
- Avoid fields previously planted with cotton or other related crops.